Biology of the Uterus

(748 Seiten)
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Ralph Wynn
1699 g
279x210x48 mm

'1 History.- 1. Greece.- 2. Alexandria.- 3. Rome.- 4. The "Dark Ages".- 5. Renaissance.- 6. Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries.- 7. Embryology and Microscopic Anatomy.- 8. References.- 2 Comparative Anatomy.- 1. Types of Uteri.- 2. Distribution and Probable Evolution of Uterine Types.- 3. Correlations of Uterine Types with Other Biological Features.- 4. Miscellaneous Aspects of the Comparative Morphology of the Uterus.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- 6. References.- 3 Prenatal Human Development.- 1. Urinary Preliminaries.- 2. The Paramesonephric Ducts.- 3. Fetal Development.- 4. References.- 4 Vascular Anatomy.- 1. Menstrual Cycle.- 1.1 Distribution of Vessels.- 1.2 Histology.- 2. Pregnancy.- 2.1 Anatomy.- 2.2 Histology.- 3. Conclusion.- 4. References.- 5 Vascular Physiology.- 1. Measurement of Uterine Blood Flow.- 1.1. Steady-State Diffusion.- 1.2. Microsphere Technique.- 1.3. Electromagnetic Flowmeter.- 2. Physiological Observations.- 2.1. Pressure-Flow Relationship.- 2.2. Distribution of Uterine Blood Flow.- 2.3. Reactivity of Uterine Vascular Beds.- 2.4. Effect of Estrogens on the Uterine Vascular Bed.- 2.5. Effects of Pregnancy on Uterine Blood Flow.- 2.6. Effects of Acute Hypoxia and Hyperoxia on Blood Flow to the Pregnant Uterus.- 2.7. Effect of Uterine Contractions on Uterine Blood Flow.- 3. Summary.- 4. References.- 6 Genetic, Biochemical, and Hormonal Mechanisms in the Regulation of Uterine Metabolism.- 1. Genetic Control of Metabolism.- 1.1. Pyrimidines, Purines, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides.- 1.2. Replication of DNA.- 1.3. Structure, Function, and Synthesis of RNA.- 1.4. Protein Biosynthesis and Enzyme Activity.- 2. Biochemical Control of Metabolism.- 2.1. Glucose Metabolism in Endocrine Glands and Hormone- Responsive Tissues.- 2.2. Sources and Biosynthesis of Hormones Affecting the Uterus.- 2.3. Regulation of Uterus by Estradiol.- 3. References.- 7 Estrogens, Nucleic Acids, and Protein Synthesis in Uterine Metabolism.- 1. Review of the Biosynthesis of Ribonucleic Acid and Protein.- 2. Estrogen.- 2.1. Transport.- 2.2. Energy Supply.- 2.3. Estrogen Receptor Sites.- 2.4. Ribonucleic Acid Biosynthesis.- 2.5. Protein Biosynthesis.- 2.6. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Biosynthesis.- 2.7. Adenosine 3',5'-Cyclic Monophosphate.- 2.8. Estrogen and Lysosomes.- 2.9. Estradiol-Sensitive Uterine Cell Cultures.- 3. Conclusion.- 4. References.- 8 The Endometrium of Delayed and Early Implantation.- 1. Marsupials.- 2. Roe Deer.- 3. Armadillos.- 4. Insectivores and Chiroptera.- 5. Carnivores.- 6. Rodents.- 7. Discussion.- 8. References.- 9 The Implantation Reaction.- 1. Preparation of the Endometrium.- 1.1. Cell Proliferation.- 1.2. Cell Differentiation.- 2. Control of Endometrial Preparation.- 2.1. Hormonal Control of Cell Proliferation.- 2.2. Hormonal Control of Differentiation of Endometrium...- 3. Sensitization of the Endometrium for Implantation.....- 3.1. Experimental Techniques.- 3.2. Role of Progesterone.- 3.3. Role of Luteal-Phase Estrogen.- 3.4. Role of Estrogen Secreted before Ovulation.- 3.5. Role of the Pituitary and Hypothalamus.- 3.6. Mode of Action of Luteal-Phase Estrogen in Inducing Endometrial Sensitivity.- 4. The Implantation Process.- 4.1. Positioning of Blastocysts in the Uterus.- 4.2. The Attachment Reaction.- 4.3. Activation of the Blastocyst.- 4.4. The Nidatory Stimulus.- 4.5. Formation of the Implantation Chamber.- 5. Regression of the Decidua.- 6. Significance of the Decidua.- 7. Concluding Remarks.- 8. References.- 10 Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Endometrium.- 1. Ciliated Cells.- 1.1. Kinocilia.- 1.2. Solitary Cilia.- 2. Secretory Cells.- 3. Endometrial Secretions.- 4. Endometrial Glands.- 5. Species Differences.- 6. Cyclical Variations.- 7. Effect of Intrauterine Devices.- 8. Changes during Implantation of Blastocyst.- 9. Effect of Aging.- 10. Concluding Remarks.- 11. References.- 11 Histology and Ultrastructure
In the decade following the publication of the first edition of Cellular Biology of the Uterus, advances in this field have been so rapid as to require not merely a revision of the earlier text but an essentially new volume. Even the title of the book has been changed, to Biology of the Uterus, to reflect the incorporation of more material based on classical anatomy and physiology. This histological and embryological information provides a necessary, though often lacking, background for the protein chemist and molecular biologist, and a bridge between biochemistry and biophysics, on the one hand, and clinical medicine, on the other. Thus, major practical problems in human reproduction, such as the mode of action of contraceptive agents and the cause of the initiation of labor, may be approached on a firm scientific footing. This text deals primarily with the biology of the uterus itself (comparative and human) rather than with placentation or pregnancy, and as such is a synthesis of data derived from many techniques, conventional and modern. Inasmuch as it is clearly beyond the competence of anyone scientist to prepare such a text on the basis of personal knowledge and experience, the aid of distinguished biologists from this country and abroad was enlisted. All of these authors, acknowledged experts in their respective fields, agreed to extensive revision of their chapters or preparation of entirely new contributions.

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