Oral Microbiology at a Glance

(96 Seiten)
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Richard J. Lamont
At a Glance (Dentistry)
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Adobe DRM [Hard-DRM]

Oral Microbiology At A Glance is a title in the highly popular at a Glance series. It provides a concise and accessible introduction and revision aid. Following the familiar, easy-to-use at a Glance format, each topic is presented as a double-page spread with key facts accompanied by clear diagrams encapsulating essential information.
Systematically organized and succinctly delivered, Oral Microbiology At A Glance covers:
* Oral microbial origins of health or disease
* Various infections ranging from dental caries, periodontal and endodontic infections to oral mucosal, bone, and systemic infections
* Local and systemic extensions of oral infections
* Sterilization, disinfection, infection control methods, and bioterrorism

Oral Microbiology At A Glance is the ideal companion for students of microbiology, all students of dentistry, and early career clinicians. In addition the text will provide valuable insight for general dental practitioners wanting to update their knowledge of oral microbiology and immunology, as well as dental hygienists, therapists and technicians.
InhaltsangabeAbout the authors vii

Preface ix

Chapter 1 Introduction to oral microbiology 2

Commensals and pathogens

Oral diseases

Chapter 2 In the beginning 4

The first microbes

Microbial basis of infectious disease

Miller and the chemoparasitic theory of caries

Oral and dental research

Chapter 3 Caries as an infectious disease 6

Dental caries as a transmissible disease

Streptococcus mutans

Mutans group streptococci

Link between S. mutans and dental caries

Immunity to caries

Chapter 4 General properties of saliva 8

Saliva production

Protective role of saliva

Salivary pellicle

Saliva as a nutrient

Chapter 5 Salivary mucins and agglutinins 10

Composition of mucins

Properties of mucins

Bacterial agglutination

Chapter 6 Secretory Immunoglobulin A 12

Production of S-IgA

Functions of S-IgA

Inactivation of salivary defenses

Development of S-IgA

The window of infectivity

Selective IgA deficiency

Chapter 7 Anti-microbial properties of saliva 14

Anti-microbial components in saliva

Chapter 8 Innate defenses 16

Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs)

Human AMPs

Chapter 9 Microbes in the oral cavity 18

Primary colonizers

Beneficial effects of bacterial colonizers

Ecological plaque hypothesis

Ecology and disease

Chapter 10 Molecular microbial taxonomy 20

Molecular taxonomy

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

DNA chips

Chapter 11 Systems approaches to oral microbiology 22



Gene ontology

Post-translational networks

Tiled arrays

Chapter 12 Oral streptococci 24

The genus Streptococcus

Viridans streptococci

Lancefield grouping

Relatedness and pathogenicity of streptococci

Chapter 13 Microbial adherence 26


Long-range adherence

Specific adhesion

Oral bacterial adhesins and receptors

Chapter 14 Complex communities 28

Inter-microbial reactions


Metabolic associations


Chapter 15 Biofilms 30

Biofilm development

Microbial recognition of surfaces and interbacterial communication

The biofilm matrix, resilience and resistance

Chapter 16 Bacterial polysaccharides 32

Extracellular polysaccharide production

Glycosyltransferases and fructosyltransferases

Glucan binding proteins

EPS produced by oral Gram-negatives

Chapter 17 Microbiology of caries 34

Structure of teeth

Dental caries

Types of dental caries

Important bacteria in caries

Emerging and polymicrobial pathogens

Chapter 18 Virulence factors of S. mutans 36

Initial attachment to tooth surfaces

Polysaccharide production

Acid production

Acid tolerance

Biofilm adaptation

Chapter 19 Host and environmental factors in caries 38

Host factors

Dietary factors

Caries risk assessment

Chapter 20 Fluoride 40

Modes of action of fluoride

Strategies for fluoride delivery

Anti-microbial effects of fluoride

Enhancing anti-microbial effects

Chapter 21 Anti-caries strategies 42

I bacteria 52

Importance of neutrophils

Innate immune sensing of periodontal bacteria

Tissue destruction and bone loss

Genetic factors associated with periodontal disease

Chapter 27 Relationship between periodontal diseases and systemic health 54

Pathogenic mechanisms – general principles

Cardiovascular disease (CVD)

Adverse pregnancy outcomes

Pulmonary infections



Chapter 28 Implants and titanium 56


Implant structure


Bacteria associated with peri-implantitis

Asepsis and treatment

Chapter 29 Endodontic infections 58

Dentinal tubules

Bacterial invasion of dentin

Microbiota of endodontic infections

Symptomatic versus asymptomatic


Chapter 30 Host factors in endodontic infections

Pulpal infections

Periapical abscesses

Repair and angiogenesis

Resistant bacteria

Chapter 31 Infective endocarditis 62

Bacteria in IE

Mechanism of vegetation formation

Bacterial virulence factors

Antibiotics in IE

Chapter 32 Oral mucosal, bone and systemic infections 64

Mucosal infections

Submucosal and bone infections

Oral manifestations of systemic infections

Systemic manifestations of oral infections

Chapter 33 Candida albicans and fungal infections 66

C. albicans infections

Denture stomatitis

Angular cheilitis

Gingivitis and periodontal disease

Prosthetic implants

Biofilms and antifungal drugs

Chapter 34 Oral virology I, herpes, papillomavirus and parvovirus 68

Herpes viruses



Chapter 35 Oral virology II, hepatitis and HIV

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Hepatitis D virus (HDV, delta agent)

Other hepatitis viruses

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Chapter 36 Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance 72

Antibiotics in dentistry

Resistance to anti-microbial agents

Transfer of anti-microbial resistance

Curtailing anti-microbial resistance

Chapter 37 Sterilization 74




Chapter 38 Disinfection 76



Chapter 39 Infection control 78


Dental unit water lines (DUWL)

Chapter 40 Bioterrorism 80





Biological Weapons Convention

Index 83

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