In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy

Principles and Techniques
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(560 Seiten)
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ISBN-13:
9781119382546
Einband:
Buch
Erscheinungsdatum:
08.03.2019
Seiten:
560
Autor:
Robin A. de Graaf
Gewicht:
1372 g
Format:
259x184x38 mm
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

Preface xv

Abbreviations xvii

Supplementary Material xxiv

1 Basic Principles 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Classical Magnetic Moments 3

1.3 Nuclear Magnetization 5

1.4 Nuclear Induction 9

1.5 Rotating Frame of Reference 11

1.6 Transverse T2 and T2 Relaxation 12

1.7 Bloch Equations 16

1.8 Fourier Transform NMR 17

1.9 Chemical Shift 20

1.10 Digital NMR 23

1.10.1 Analog-to-digital Conversion 23

1.10.2 Signal Averaging 25

1.10.3 Digital Fourier Transformation 25

1.10.4 Zero Filling 25

1.10.5 Apodization 26

1.11 Quantum Description of NMR 28

1.12 Scalar Coupling 30

1.13 Chemical and Magnetic Equivalence 33

Exercises 37

References 40

2 In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy - Static Aspects 43

2.1 Introduction 43

2.2 Proton NMR Spectroscopy 43

2.2.1 Acetate (Ace) 51

2.2.2 N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) 52

2.2.3 N-Acetyl Aspartyl Glutamate (NAAG) 53

2.2.4 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) 54

2.2.5 Alanine (Ala) 55

2.2.6 gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) 56

2.2.7 Ascorbic Acid (Asc) 57

2.2.8 Aspartic Acid (Asp) 58

2.2.9 Branched-chain Amino Acids (Isoleucine, Leucine, and Valine) 58

2.2.10 Choline-containing Compounds (tCho) 59

2.2.11 Creatine (Cr) and Phosphocreatine (PCr) 61

2.2.12 Ethanol 62

2.2.13 Ethanolamine (EA) and Phosphorylethanolamine (PE) 63

2.2.14 Glucose (Glc) 63

2.2.15 Glutamate (Glu) 64

2.2.16 Glutamine (Gln) 65

2.2.17 Glutathione (GSH) 66

2.2.18 Glycerol 67

2.2.19 Glycine 68

2.2.20 Glycogen 68

2.2.21 Histidine 69

2.2.22 Homocarnosine 70

2.2.23 ß-Hydoxybutyrate (BHB) 70

2.2.24 2-Hydroxyglutarate (2HG) 71

2.2.25 myo-Inositol (mI) and scyllo-Inositol (sI) 72

2.2.26 Lactate (Lac) 73

2.2.27 Macromolecules 74

2.2.28 Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) 76

2.2.29 Phenylalanine 76

2.2.30 Pyruvate 77

2.2.31 Serine 78

2.2.32 Succinate 79

2.2.33 Taurine (Tau) 79

2.2.34 Threonine (Thr) 80

2.2.35 Tryptophan (Trp) 80

2.2.36 Tyrosine (Tyr) 80

2.2.37 Water 81

2.2.38 Non-cerebral Metabolites 82

2.2.39 Carnitine and Acetyl-carnitine 82

2.2.40 Carnosine 84

2.2.41 Citric Acid 862.2.42 Deoxymyoglobin (DMb) 87

2.2.43 Lipids 87

2.2.44 Spermine and Polyamines 89

2.3 Phosphorus-31 NMR Spectroscopy 90

2.3.1 Chemical Shifts 90

2.3.2 Intracellular pH 92

2.4 Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy 93

2.4.1 Chemical Shifts 93

2.5 Sodium-23 NMR Spectroscopy 96

2.6 Fluorine-19 NMR Spectroscopy 102

2.7 In vivo NMR on Other Non-proton Nuclei 104

Exercises 106

References 108

3 In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy - Dynamic Aspects 129

3.1 Introduction 129

3.2 Relaxation 129

3.2.1 General Principles of Dipolar Relaxation 129

3.2.2 Nuclear Overhauser Effect 133

3.2.3 Alternative Relaxation Mechanisms 134

3.2.4 Effects of T1 Relaxation 137

3.2.5 Effects of T2 Relaxation 138

3.2.6 Measurement of T1 and T2 Relaxation 141

3.2.6.1 T1 Relaxation 141

3.2.6.2 Inversion Recovery 141

3.2.6.3 Saturation Recovery 142

3.2.6.4 Variable Nutation Angle 142

3.2.6.5 MR Fingerprinting 143

3.2.6.6 T2 Relaxation 143

3.2.7 In Vivo Relaxation 144

3.3 Magnetization Transfer 147

3.3.1 Principles of MT 149

3.3.2 MT Methods 150

3.3.3 Multiple Exchange Reactions 152

3.3.4 MT Contrast 152

3.3.5 Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) 156

3.4 Diffusion 160

3.4.1 Principles of Diffusion 160

3.4.2 Diffusion and NMR 160

3.4.3 Anisotropic Diffusion 169

3.4.4 Restricted Diffusion 173

3.5 Dynamic NMR of Isotopically-Enriched Substrates 175

3.5.1 General Principles and Setup 177

3.5.2 Metabolic Modeling 177

3.5.3 Thermally Polarized Dynamic 13C NMR Spectroscopy 184

3.5.3.1 [1-13C]-Glucose and [1,6-13C2]-Glucose 184

3.5.3.2 [2-13C]-Glucose 185

3.5.3.3 [U-13C6]-Glucose 187

3.5.3.4 [2-13C]-Acetate 187

3.5.4 Hyperpolarized Dynamic 13C NMR Spectroscopy 189

3.5.4.1 Brute Force Hyperpolarization 189
Presents basic concepts, experimental methodology and data acquisition, and processing standards of in vivo NMR spectroscopy
This book covers, in detail, the technical and biophysical aspects of in vivo NMR techniques and includes novel developments in the field such as hyperpolarized NMR, dynamic ¯13C NMR, automated shimming, and parallel acquisitions. Most of the techniques are described from an educational point of view, yet it still retains the practical aspects appreciated by experimental NMR spectroscopists. In addition, each chapter concludes with a number of exercises designed to review, and often extend, the presented NMR principles and techniques.

The third edition of In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy: Principles and Techniques has been updated to include experimental detail on the developing area of hyperpolarization; a description of the semi-LASER sequence, which is now a method of choice; updated chemical shift data, including the addition of ¯31P data; a troubleshooting section on common problems related to shimming, water suppression, and quantification; recent developments in data acquisition and processing standards; and MatLab scripts on the accompanying website for helping readers calculate radiofrequency pulses.
Provide an educational explanation and overview of in vivo NMR, while maintaining the practical aspects appreciated by experimental NMR spectroscopists
Features more experimental methodology than the previous edition
End-of-chapter exercises that help drive home the principles and techniques and offer a more in-depth exploration of quantitative MR equations
Designed to be used in conjunction with a teaching course on the subject

In Vivo NMR Spectroscopy: Principles and Techniques, 3rd Edition is aimed at all those involved in fundamental and/or diagnostic in vivo NMR, ranging from people working in dedicated in vivo NMR institutes, to radiologists in hospitals, researchers in high-resolution NMR and MRI, and in areas such as neurology, physiology, chemistry, and medical biology.

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