The Online Teaching Survival Guide

Simple and Practical Pedagogical Tips
(408 Seiten)
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Judith V. Boettcher
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Essential reading for online instructors, updated to cover new and emerging issues and technologies
The Online Teaching Survival Guide provides a robust overview of theory-based techniques for teaching online or technology-enhanced courses. Covering all aspects of online teaching, this book reviews the latest research in cognitive processing and related learning outcomes while retaining a focus on the practical. A simple framework of instructional strategies mapped across a four-phase timeline provides a concrete starting point for both new online teachers and experienced teachers designing or revamping an online course. Essential technologies are explored in their basic and expanded forms, and traditional pedagogy serves as the foundation for tips and practices customized for online learning. The tips cover course management, social presence, community building, integration of new technologies, discussion and questioning techniques, assessment, and debriefing, along with new coverage of intensive or accelerated courses, customizing learning strategies, developing expertise, advanced course design, and assessment techniques exclusive to this new second edition.

The theory and techniques of successful online teaching can be significantly different from those used face-to-face. With more and more classes being offered online, this book provides a valuable resource for taking your course to the next level.
* Understand the technology used in online teaching
* Learn specialized pedagogical tips and practices
* Examine new research on cognition and learning
* Adopt a clear framework of instructional strategies

The explosion of online learning has created a demand for great online teachers. Increasingly, faculty who normally teach face-to-face are being asked to cover online courses--yet comprehensive pedagogical resources are scarce. The learning curve is huge, and faculty need a practical approach to course design and management that can be quickly and easily implemented. The Online Teaching Survival Guide provides that essential resource, with a customizable framework and deeper exploration of effective online teaching.

List of Tables, Figures, and Exhibits xv

Foreword xvii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgments xxii

About the Authors xxiii

Introduction xxv


1 Teaching Online: The Big Picture 3

Preparing to Teach in the Online and Blended Environments 4

Uh?]Oh. What Did I Say I Would Do? 4

Is This You? 5

The Definition of a Course 6

How Do Online and Blended Courses Differ from Traditional Courses? 8

Types of Online and Blended Courses 10

The Four Stages of a Course 13

Learning Theories and Theorists 13

Summaryand Whats Next 22

2 Pedagogical Principles for Effective Teaching and Learning: Ten Core Learning Principles 23

Background of the Ten Core Learning Principles 25

Ten Core Learning Principles 26

Principle 1: Every Structured Learning Experience Has Four Elements, with the Learner at the Center 27

Principle 2: Learners Bring Their Own Personalized and Customized Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes to the Learning Experience 30

Principle 3: Faculty Mentors Are the Directors of the Learning Experience 32

Principle 4: All Learners Do Not Need to Learn All Course Content; All Learners Do Need to Learn the Core Concepts 33

Principle 5: Every Learning Experience Includes the Environment or Context in Which the Learner Interacts 35

Principle 6: Every Learner Has a Zone of Proximal Development That Defines the Space That a Learner Is Ready to Develop into Useful Knowledge 36

Principle 7: Concepts Are Not Words But Organized and Interconnected Knowledge Clusters 37

Principle 8: Different Instruction Is Required for Different Learning Outcomes 38

Principle 9: Everything Else Being Equal, More Time on Task Equals More Learning 39

Principle 10: We Shape Our Tools, and Our Tools Shape Us 40

Summaryand Whats Next 41

3 Best Practices for Teaching Online: Ten Plus Four 43

Best Practices for Online and Blended Teaching and Learning 44

Best Practice 1: Be Present at Your Course 44

Three Types of Presence 46

Best Practice 2: Create a Supportive Online Course Community 47

Best Practice 3: Develop a Set of Explicit Workload and Communication Expectations for Your Learners and for Yourself 48

Best Practice 4: Use a Variety of Large Group, Small Group, and Individual Work Experiences 50

Best Practice 5: Use Synchronous and Asynchronous Activities 51

Best Practice 6: Ask for Informal Feedback Early in the Term 52

Best Practice 7: Prepare Discussion Posts That Invite Responses, Questions, Discussions, and Reflections 53

Best Practice 8: Think Digital for All Course Content 54

Best Practice 9: Combine Core Concept Learning with Customized and Personalized Learning 55

Best Practice 10: Plan a Good Closing and Wrap Activity for the Course 57

Four More Best Practices for Online and Blended Teaching and Learning 57

Best Practice 11: Assess as You Go by Gathering Evidences of Learning 58

Best Practice 12: Rigorously Connect Content to Core Concepts and Learning Outcomes 58

Best Practice 13: Develop and Use a Content Frame for the Course 59

Best Practice 14: Design Experiences to Help Learners Make Progress on Their Novice?]to?]Expert Journey 60

Summaryand Whats Next 61

4 Technology Tools to Support Teaching and Learning 62

Guidelines for Choosing and Using Technology Tools 63

Basic Set of Technology Tools for Online and Blended Teaching and Learning 65

Basic Set of Digital Technology Tools: Their Teaching and Learning Purposes 66

More Thoughts on the Basic Tools 70

Tools for Practicing Contextual Knowledge and Exploring Possibilities 74

Staying in Sync with Tools 77

5 Four Phases of a Course: Themes and Happenings 79

Phase 1 Course Beginnings: Starting Off on the Right Foot 79

Phase 2 Early Middle: Keeping the Ball Rolling 85

Phase 3 Late Middle: Letting Go of the Power 90

Phase 4 Closing Weeks: Pruning, Reflecting, and Wrapping Up 97

Summaryand Whats Next 103


6 Phase 1: Course Beginnings: Starting off on the Right Foot 107

Tips for the Course Beginnings 107

Course Beginnings Tips Overview 109

Getting StartedPreparing Your Syllabus and Course Site 109

Getting StartedPreparing Your Syllabus and Course Site 110

CB Tip 1: Essential Elements of an Online or Blended Course Syllabus and Course Site 110

CB Tip 2: More on the Significant Elements of an Online or Blended Syllabus 118

CB Tip 3: Creating a Syllabus That Jump?]starts Learning 122

CB Tip 4: Using Bookending to Add Structure and Meaning to Your Course 127

CB Tip 5: Generating Energy and Purpose with Specific Learning Goals 130

Getting StartedLaunching Your Course 134

CB Tip 6: Hitting the Ground Running: Maximizing the First Week 134

CB Tip 7: Launching Your Social and Cognitive Presence 136

CB Tip 8: Getting to Know Students Minds: The Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development 140

CB Tip 9: Getting into the Swing of a Course: Is There an Ideal Weekly Rhythm? 142

Creating and Managing Discussion Posts 145

CB Tip 10: The Why and How of Discussion Boards: Their Role in the Online Course 145

CB Tip 11: Characteristics of Good Discussion Questions 148

CB Tip 12: Power Questioning for Meaningful Discussions 154

CB Tip 13: Response PostsA Three?]Part Structure 158

CB Tip 14: Discussion Wraps: A Useful Cognitive Pattern or a Collection of Discrete Thoughts? 160

CB Tip 15: Using Discussion Forums to Gather Evidence of Learning 162

CB Tip 16: Feedback in Discussion PostsHow Soon, How Much, and Wrapping Up 166

CB Tip 17: The Faculty Role in Blended and Online Courses 168

Summaryand Whats Next 171

7 Phase 2: Keeping the Ball Rolling in the Early Middle 172

Tips for the Early Middle 172

EM Tip 1: Tools for Teaching Presence: E?]mails, Announcements, and Discussion Forums 174

EM Tip 2: Monitoring Student Progress Using Learning Management Systems 177

EM Tip 3: Early Feedback Loop from Learners to You 178

EM Tip 4: Early Feedback Tools: Rubrics, Quizzes, and Peer Review 181

EM Tip 5: Steps in Memory?]Making: What Teaching Behaviors Make a Difference 184

Summary 187

EM Tip 6: Tips for Making Your Grading Time Efficient and Formative for Learners 188

EM Tip 7: Dealing with Difficult StudentsWhat Do You Do? 191

Building the Cognitive Presence 195

EM Tip 8: Building Cognitive Presence Using the Practical Inquiry Model 196

EM Tip 9: Core Concepts of a CourseDo You Know Yours? 198

EM Tip 10: Designing Assessment Plans for Online and Blended Courses 202

EM Tip 11: Three Best Assessment Practices 205

EM Tip 12: Assignments for the Evaluating and Creating Levels of Blooms Taxonomy 210

Strategies and Tools for Building Community 213

EM Tip 13: Collaborating with Groups of Two or ThreeCasual Grouping 214

EM Tip 14: Group Projects in Online Courses: Setting Up and Structuring Groups 216

EM Tip 15: Using Synchronous Collaboration Tools 220

EM Tip 16: Using Audio and Video Resources to Create a More Engaging Course 222

Summaryand Whats Next 225

8 Phase 3: Letting Go of Power in the Late Middle 226

Overview of Late Middle Tips 226

Going Deeper: Leveraging the Power of Questions 228

LM Tip 1: Questions and Answers: Upside Down and Inside Out 228

LM Tip 2: Three Techniques for Making Your Students Knowledge Visible 230

LM Tip 3: Developing Rigor in Our Questioning: Eight Intellectual Standards 232

LM Tip 4: Moving Beyond Knowledge Integration to Defining Problems and Finding Solutions 237

Feedback for Cognitive Growth 239

LM Tip 5: Are You Reading My Postings? Do You Know Who I Am? Simple Rules for Feedback in Online Learning 239

LM Tip 6: Feedback on Assignments: Being Timely and Efficient 244

LM TIP 7: Substantive Feedback: Doing It Wisely and Well 248

LM Tip 8: Rubrics for Analyzing Critical Thinking 252

Assessing Learning as You Go with Projects 255

LM Tip 9: Customizing and Personalizing Learning Projects 256

LM Tip 10: Managing and Facilitating Group Projects 259

LM Tip 11: Assessing Group Projects 261

LM Tip 12: Four Effective Practices During Project Time 264

Community Empowerment and Social Networking 267

LM Tip 13: Course Middles and Muddles: Souped?]Up Conversations That Help Build Community 268

LM Tip 14: Using Social Networking Techniques to Build a Learning Community 269

LM Tip 15: Experts: A Touch of Spice 272

Summaryand Whats Next 275

9 Phase 4: Pruning, Reflecting, and Wrapping Up 277

Tips for the Closing Weeks 277

Meaningful Projects and Presentations 279

CW Tip 1: Using What?]If Scenarios: Flexing Our Minds with Possibilities 279

CW Tip 2: Stage 3 of a Learning Community: Stimulating and Comfortable Camaraderie 281

CW Tip 3: Learners as Leaders 283

CW Tip 4: Course Wrapping with Concept Mapping: Capturing Course Content Meaningfully 285

CW Tip 5: Using Case Studies in Online Courses: Making Content Real 290

Preparing for the Course Wrap 294

CW Tip 6: Pausing, Reflecting, and Pruning Strategies 294

CW Tip 7: Closing Experiences: Wrapping Up a Course with Style 296

CW Tip 8: Real?]Time Closing Gatherings: Stories and Suggestions 299

CW Tip 9: Debriefing Techniques: What One Change Would Students Recommend? 302

Conclusionand Whats Next 303

10 Teaching Accelerated Intensive Courses 305

Tips for Intensive Courses (IC) 305

IC Tip 1: Designing for Intensive Courses Using Content Framing and Case Studies 306

IC Tip 2: High?]Impact Practices for Short Courses: Reflections, Patterns, and Relationships 308

IC Tip 3: Developing Expertise in Short Courses: Can It Be Done? 313

Conclusionand Whats Next 315


11 Whats Next: Reflecting and Looking Forward 319

Reflecting and Looking Forward Using the Four Course Phases 319

Reflecting and Looking Forward with the Learning Experiences Framework 325

Advice from Fellow Online Instructors 328

Conclusion: Innovation as a Three?]Phase Process 330

Appendix: Resources for Learning More about the Research and Theory of Teaching Online 333

References 339

Index 359

Subject Index 363

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